Category Archives: AO3

Q) Compare how have the writers of both passages used style and language to convey meaning? By Zara Irfan


Q)How have the authors of passage one and two addressed their opinions about visiting a new place/country? By Zara Irfan


Passage A is an extract is an extract from the travel writing ‘Neither Here Nor There’, written by the writer Bill Bryson. Passage B whereas, is from the novel ‘Slum Dog Billionaire’, drafted by the author Vikas Swarup. Both of these writings are in their own way encourage able, the intended effect of the first one being expressive and entertaining, highly reflecting that of passage B, which is also very engaging. 

Rounding up all of the similarities first, the most evident similarity would be the theme of both passage A and passage B, which is ‘travel’. They are intended to systemize new experiences and exploration which can be evident in passage A when the writer says, “I had no map not even the vaguest sense of geography.” Passage B on the other hand says, “The Taj Mahal, I had heard about it.” These examples show signs of cluelessness.

Second, the audience of both the extracts is more or less the same as well, mainly for travelers, adults and young adults. For example, the first passage says, “Naples looked even worse after Sorrento and Capri”. Passage B correspondingly says, “The Taj Mahal. The eighth wonder of the world.” These basic lines show that these extracts are intended for people interested in travel.

Style is another one of the similarities visible as both passages are narratives and fervently descriptive at the same time. “Were obscured by a wispy haze and Naples across the bay appeared to have been taken away by the night,” (Passage A) and “Thirty minutes of brisk walking along the embankment brings me to an enormous red sandstone entrance gate.” (Passage B) provide backup to this statement. This creates a visual image of the scene unfolding in the reader’s mind and makes the work more appealing.

Apart from this, these extracts from ‘Neither Here Nor There’ and ‘Slumdog Billionaire’ revolve around a hefty amount of figures of speech. For example, personification like ‘tumbling fog’ in passage one and ‘swelling dome’ in passage two and alliteration like “purity of it’s perfection” in passage two have been used. Through this, color is added to the authors work and the writing becomes much more interesting to read as well, attracting readers like bees are to honey.

Another similarity would be the obvious humor highlighting the stories. They are both coincidentally comical and sarcastic at the same time, which makes the readers feel light and focused on reading ahead. Humor can be spotted in passage A when the writer says, “unattended children, often naked from the waist down, in filthy T-shirts” and in passage B in the following words, “glimpse of a dead body floating on its surface.”

In both extracts statistical and factual intel has also been provided to the reader, the exact words of Bill Bryson in passage B being, “the pettier crimes like car theft (29,000 per year)”, and of Vikas Swarup in passage B, “TAJ MAHAL ENTRY FEES: INDIANS RS.20”. This technique is a clever way to make the writer’s words seem much more believable and at the same time backs up their stance accordingly.  All in all, it also provides the reader with knowledge, understanding of an idea and a chance to discover fresh information.

Moving on to the differences, both these passages carry different content. Even though they both are themed as ‘travel’, the narratives are about two deflecting places and specific experiences. For example, the first one talks about a visit to ‘Naples’ (“I purchased a ticket on a slow ferry to Naples”) and the second passage talks about the Taj Mahal- a place in India (“That is the Taj Mahal, idiot”). Varying contents provide the readers with a wide range of variety and new concepts to view.

Language, at the same time, is also a bit different. Despite usage of an ample amount of figures of speech and literary techniques, passage A is conducted through a rather formal tone. The author, for example, says, “where the old rascal used to have guests who displeased him.” These words show that they are not used in casual, normal conversations whereas in passage B the language is in fact conversational and semi-formal. Vikas Swarup uses lines like, “That is the Taj Mahal you idiot.” This creates an image of informality and makes the story easy to read and comprehensive.

Attitude of passage A and passage B is somewhat in neglect to each other. In passage A the attitude remains skeptical throughout, even till the very end. For example, the author uses words like, “mean, cavernous, semi-paved alleyways,” for the streets of Naples. The writer of passage B, however, has a fluctuating attitude. He is being expressive in a way where he keeps a good balance between the negatives and the positives. He says, “Taj Mahal rises in all it’s beauty and splendor.” This way we can say that passage A brings about a biased opinion and uses an attacking stance, forcing the readers to agree whereas passage B at the same time creates a light flow and somewhat calms the reader with its factual and expressive nature.

Now wrapping up everything, both these passages share similar traits in being resourceful and expressive by using many literary devices. They also share the same theme and humor. However, clear differences can be jotted down as well on first look, for example their content, language and attitude varies immensely.

Q. Compare how the writers of Text One and Text Two convey their ideas and experiences when discussing the role and features of various volunteering groups. By Areesha Fatima


The first passage is an extract taken from a website and is titled, ‘Volunteering with Raleigh International’ and the second one is an extract taken from a personal account, ‘Leila Volunteered as a teacher in Fiji’. The author of text one remains unnamed while that of text two is Leila. Both the passages greatly discuss the role and features of various volunteering groups and the authors have conveyed their experiences through the use of many techniques.

Firstly, the purpose of both the passages seems to be informative however text two has a slight touch of entertainment and text one seems a bit persuasive. For example in text one, “here are a few pointers on why volunteering with Raleigh International is different from….” and in text two, “Living in Fiji has really opened my eyes.” “As a volunteer of seven months….” In text one, the persuasive factor along with being informative encourages the reader to volunteer for ‘Raleigh International’ and text two keeps the author entertained along with giving an ample amount of information for the ease of the reader. This specifies the purpose of writing and tends to keep the reader engaged so that the author also achieves their purpose.

Moreover, the language used in both the passages stays simple yet interesting for the reader as it can be seen by, “trekking, comprehensive, unexplored, equatorial” and in the second passage, “open-mindedness, consistently, humanitarian” The use of such language becomes a source of grabbing the reader’s attention as familiar words will make them read further and will add more knowledge to their mind’s dictionary if they are unfamiliar with them. 

Additionally, the tone of both the passages is positive and effective for the reader. For example in text one, “recognise the benefits of Raleigh International”, “Safety is at the heart of everything we do.” “developing skills” and in text two, “patience is a skill I have really developed.” “I’m proud to say that….”,“I would like to achieve this dream….” All these examples reflect the positive tone used by both the authors which affects the reader’s mood and brings out his/her positive attitude towards the topic being discussed which in this case is ‘volunteering’.

Proceedingly, the choice of the author of text one of writing the text in second person and that of text two for writing in first person has helped both of them to convey their idea successfully but differently. For example in text one,  “so you won’t feel isolated.” “You’ll be making a real difference.” “You won’t just be repainting a school” and in text two, “I have been very busy during….” “I feel like I could take on almost any challenge.”

By writing in second person, the author refers to the reader as ‘you’ which makes him/her feel included and a part of the whole volunteering experience and as if the author is directly talking to him/her and conveying his ideas and feelings.However,in first person by using ‘I’, the author makes an image of the reader experiencing everything on his/her own and he/she feels like the main role of the passage. Both these techniques equally get a grip of the reader’s attention.

Furthermore, there is a great use of statistics in text one which can be seen by, “12-16 people comprising 2 volunteer managers aged 25+ and volunteers aged 17-24”, “24 hours a day, seven days a week.” This makes the passage more authentic and the author’s purpose to inform the reader has been achieved along with persuading the reader about ‘Raleigh International’. In text two, there isn’t any use of statistics but still tends to inform the reader about her volunteering experience in Fiji.

Also, a prominent use of dialect can be observed in text two e.g. “bula”. This connotes that the author(Leila) has ample knowledge about Fiji and this can be quite beneficial for a reader who wants to volunteer especially in Fiji. This gives a great image of the author and makes the passage more reliable. However, there is no dialect in text one but his/her ideas have also been conveyed.

Adding to this, alliteration can be spotted in the first text e.g “remote reserves,trekking terrain,remote rural communities” This creates a rhythm and mainly adds emphasis to the words and/or phrases to engage the reader and to make sure that these words pop up. There is no use of alliteration in text two but an anaphora can be spotted e.g “I’ve learnt about what….I’ve learnt about how….” This repetition also adds emphasis to these words/phrases and grabs the reader’s attention. Both these techniques include repetition and work for the same purpose but are different.  

Last but not the least, in text one the author has written down some facts in pointers whereas, in text two there are only different sized paragraphs. For example, “1) Volunteering overseas with Raleigh….3) Many volunteering projects are….” Writing in pointers differentiates between the facts being stated and become quite important in the eyes of the reader as they stand out than the rest of the paragraphs. This insists the reader to read further and definitely increases his/her curiosity as it also gives the passage a reliable and professional look. In text two, no pointers are found but the paragraphs still work great for the reader as she successfully conveys her point of view.

In conclusion, authors of both the passages have achieved their purpose of writing merely because of the rhetorical techniques they have used. Literary devices have helped them in sharing their experiences with more detail and enthusiasm. Text one and two have greatly explained the role and features of both volunteering groups due to the authors’ choice of stylistic devices and the way they conveyed their ideas and feelings.

AO3: How have the writers of both texts conveyed their message about the negative use of social networking sites? Support your answer using brief quotations from the texts. By Ali Ul Quder 10-F


Passage A is extracted from, ‘It’s So Over: Cool Cyber Kids Abandon Social Networking Sites’. Passage B has been given the title of ‘Social Websites Harm Children’s Brains.’ Both passages have different sources. Passage A is written by The ‘The Guardian’ while passage B is written by ‘Mail Online’. The sources of both passages argue upon the same idea and in general, both sources have successfully conveyed their message and have also managed to persuade the audience about the harmful effects of social networking sites.

Moving on, the theme of both passages can somewhat be linked with one another. The theme of passage A is ‘Adults using networking sites’ which shows the reader that adults have adopted the trend of using networking sites. While the theme of passage B is ‘social websites ruining children’s mind’. Both themes share similar meanings as both passages talk about either technology or social media ruining the consumer’s life and deteriorating their lives. Overall, it also shows the reader that most people do have their head tilted downwards, gazing at the bright screens instead of being productive.

The tone of passage A is informal and casual. Words like ‘rara skirts’ and “uncles wearing skinny jeans” add a bit of humor to the passage. This proves to the reader that causality is present. This intimidating language immediately creates an impact on the reader and helps the author to present his opinion. While on the other hand, passage B is formal and not as harsh as passage A as the author uses words like ‘websites are causing alarming changes’. This is effectful as the author directly gets to his point. The intended effect of passage A is comparatively more persuading and engaging even though informal vocabulary is used but passage B is also persuading as the author is straightforward.

The purpose of passage A is to inform the reader that the younger generations have stopped using social networking sites as there is a prominent transition of usage between young adults and adults. ‘Their love of being online’ this shows us, the audience, that there is no sign of people logging out and stop using their devices. The purpose of passage B is also to inform the reader that social media has a dreadful effect on people’s minds, and has successfully convinced the reader by stating, ‘Sites such as Facebook, Twitter are said to shorten attention spans’. This shows the reader that this eventually results in a deluded state of mind. Overall, the purpose of both passages is similar, to aware the audience of the abuses of technology.

Furthermore, the use of statistics is also present in both, passage A and B. Passage A uses ‘25-34 years old’ whereas B uses ‘over 150 million’. This helps the author to prove his as he uses evidence and does not state his opinion in a general and vague manner. The use of statistics plays with the reader’s mind as they are convinced.

Also, using jargon is present in both of the passages. The use of words in passage A such as ‘Facebook’ and ‘Facebook, Twitter and Bebo’ in passage B signifies to the reader that the authors are proving their statement and conveying their ideas using examples.

Moreover, logos are also present in both passages. This can be proved by the words ‘15-24 year olds’ In passage A and ‘millions whose social lives’ in passage B. This shows the audience that the author does have the knowledge and does not struggle to create a logical appeal and creates ease to persuade the reader. It adds professionalism.

Lastly, the use of figures of speech is also vastly present in both of the passages. Passage A uses humor to entertain the reader like, ‘mothers investing in ra-ra skirts’ and ‘uncles wearing skinny jeans’. This shows the reader that social networking sites have kept the older generations updated. This also entertains the reader and develops interest as the passage is not mechanical. Whereas, in passage B phrases like, ‘buzzing of phones’ has been used which is an onomatopoeia. This also entertains the reader as they get a clearer idea of the scenario. The effect of this is that both sources/authors try their best to persuade the reader by entertaining them.

Summing it all up, both authors successfully convey their main message. The main message is that technology, in general, has ruined our lives mentally and physically. The writers also successfully persuade the audience by using FOS which entertains the reader and makes them greedy for more. Another effect used by the author is of statistics which proves to the reader the author’s point and makes them believable. Lastly, the use of jargon also plays a major role in persuading the reader as they provide evidence to the author and makes their statement believable.

AO3: ‘Visit to Naples’ by Bill Bryson and ‘Ram sees the Taj Mahal’ by Vikas Swarup by Subhan Bin Yousaf 11-E


Question: How have the writers of passage one and passage two addressed their opinions about visiting a new place/country?


The first passage is an extract titled ‘Visit to Naples’, written by Bill Bryson. The second passage, an extract titled ‘Ram sees the Taj Mahal’, written by Vikas Swarup. The first extract, extracted from the travel log diary ‘Neither here nor there’ and the second extract, taken from the book ‘Slumdog millionaire’. The intended purpose of the writers of both passages is to convey the journeys and the landscape and sights the subjects of both passages saw. Devices such as the likes of Imagery, Figurative language and Descriptiveness aid the two writers with their purpose.

Passage One is Narrative with a speck of descriptiveness accompanying this narrativeness. “I emerged from the hotel, a cold slicing rain falling”, In this example, the writer narrates his action in the first half of the sentence, then he begins to describe what he sees in the second half of the sentence. Passage two is similar to passage one, but the passage is descriptive with a speck of narrativeness accompanying this descriptiveness. “I pass through the metal detector, cross the red-sand stone courtyard with its arched gateaway…..Taj Mahal rises in all its beauty and splendor, shimmering in afternoon haze.”, Notice that in this sentence, One seventh of the sentence is narrative with the rest being descriptive about the Taj Mahal’s landscape. The intended purposes of writers of both passages is to emit conveyance of ideas using structure, but the only thing that differs in the works of both writers is the different ratio of descriptiveness and narrativeness in their passages, however, this difference still produces the same amount of interest for the reader to read this passage.

The purpose of the writer of passage one is to describe his journey and sights he sees. “I would blunder onto some shady square lined with small but decent hotels.” In this example, the writer explains that he would walk into shady spots which were encountered by small,decent hotels on both sides. Notice the writer describes to where he walks yet describe the thing he sees, in this case, small hotels. The purpose of the writer of passage two is congruent to the purpose of the writer of passage one, both passages describe the journeys of the protagonists of both passages as well as the sights they see. “Thirty minutes of brisk walking along the embankment brings me to an enormous red-sandstone entrance gate.” Notice how he describes his journey around Taj and describes the sandstone gate he sees. The purpose of both writers was to write in a way that when the reader reads the passage line by line, the reader could visualize themselves in the body of the protagonist, see through their eyes, walk their steps. Hence their purpose is achieved and the purpose to build interest for the passage in the reader’s mind, is also achieved.

One other common device used by the writers of both passages is the use of Statistics in the passages, “In the centre of Naples some 70000 families live”. In this example, the writer of passage one uses one of the statistics he knows about the city of Naples and writes it in his passage to convey this piece of knowledge to the readers, reading his passage. The writer of passage two, too has used a number of statistics about the Taj Mahal. “Taj Mahal, Eighth wonder of the World”, one of the many stats used in the passage. The writer of passage two also conveys this piece of info to the readers, reading his novel around the World, unaware about Taj Mahal’s history and importance. By using statistics in their passages, the writers teach some facts to the readers about the place the plot of the story is based in. By doing this, the readers become aware of what the protagonist might be facing or seeing, or taking a tour of, they become aware of what the places in the passages are actually like. These stats also enhances the general knowledge of the reader, either way, these stats maintain the will of the reader to carry on reading.

One other common device used by the writer of both passages is the use of Metaphors in the passages. “Plane of dead sea”- an example of a metaphor used in passage one. The use of this metaphor in passage one is to convey the concept of shores there. The shores are part of the dead sea and stretch over an unknown wide area of the Earth’s land. “Glitters in the sunlight” is an example of a metaphor used in passage two. To describe the reflection of sunlight from the dome of Taj, the writer uses the word “glitter” to describe this reflection. By using the metaphor in these passages, the writer explains a concept to the reader, by comparing it to unlike things to add in a bit of emphasis. The example “Plane of dead sea”, the word “Plane” replaces the concept of a huge, wide area. The example “glitters in sunlight”, the word “glitters” replaces the concept of reflection of sunlight. These metaphors help make the conveyance of concepts to be a bit of figurative. These metaphors capture the interest of reader and encourage them to read on.

One other figurative element used in the passage is the use of Personification. “Tumbling fog” is an example of personification used in the passage one. “Tumbling” is the word used to describe fog that arrives slowly and the writer uses this term in the passage to explain the patient arrival of fog. “Clouds drifting” is an example of personification used in passage two. The purpose behind using Personification is to compare unlike things to human like interaction. Personification adds in emphasis to the concepts conveyed in both passages. It helps the readers to understand the concepts conveyed in a better perspective which enhances not only interest but also their literary figurative use in writing.

One more figurative device used in the passage is the use of alliteration. “Steep and slippery steps”-an example of passage one, notice the use of words that begin with the same alphabets, used to describe a concept or visualize it. “Purity of perfection”, another example of alliteration used in passage two. This example is used to describe the concept of the timeline the protagonist had mapped out in his mind. Like said above, alliteration helps these writers to describe and visualize concepts effectively. These help add a bit of emphasis to the concepts. Alliterations can play the role of adjectives describing that concept. Hence, when the concepts are effectively explained with the assist of alliteration, the reader develops interest for the passage and maintains the will to carry on reading.

One other figurative device used in the passages is the use of Similes. “Hung like banners between balconies that never saw sunlight”-an example of a simile in passage one. The writer of passage one makes a comparison of the washed clothes left out hung to dry, to banners hung on the balconies of castles. “Turquoise sky like an ivory moon”- an example of a simile used in passage two. The writer compares the sky’s colour that day as if it looks like turquoise or like the colour of ivory. By using similes in the passages, both the writers emit a direct comparison of the concepts of the passages to unlike things, to add in not only emphasis but to place an effect of imagery in the reader’s mind. The reader becomes aware of the landscape of the place as he can visualize it while reading the passage. Using similes captures the reader’s interest as he has been explained the concept in more detail.

The audience of both the passages have something in common: similar interests with no differences. “The Vicaria, where I was now, is said to have the highest population density in Europe”, The writer of passage one writes this piece of fact  in the passage to be used by readers that might find this fact useful, such as tourists. “A group of prosperous Western tourists armed with camcorders and binoculars, listening to an elderly guide at the base of the dome”-the writer of passage two tells the readers of what to expect if they ever go to Taj Mahal. This fact can be useful for those such as the tourists. The audience of both passages can be anyone of any age, but the passages have actually been written to capture the attention of special interest groups, such as the tourists.

In conclusion, the writers of both passages have used common devices such as the use of  Statistics, figurative language, descriptiveness to achieve their goal: To provide the reader with an opportunity to visualize themselves in the shoes of the passages’ protagonists. Using these devices captured a reader’s interest, encourage him to finish reading the extracts. Hence both writers have used the similar devices to achieve a similar objective, successfully.


AO3: How have the writers of both texts conveyed their message about the negative use of social networking sites? Support your answer using brief quotations from the texts. By Amal Adil


The title of passage A is “It’s so over: cool cyberkids abandon social networking sites” and the title of passage B is “Social websites harm children’s brains”. Passage A has been taken from “The Guardian” and passage B from “Mail Online”. Both passages are trying to prove the harmful effects of social networking sites and how and why the excessive use of social media should be stopped. Both the writers have delivered the passages in an extremely effective way and have used detailed words to prove the negative effects of social media.

The tone used in passage A is slightly informal as the writer has used phrases like “ra-ra skirts” and “uncles wearing skinny jeans” to add a bit of humor to the text. By  making the tone informal from the first paragraph, the writer makes the text more interesting to read. In passage B, the tone is more formal and is also slightly negative as the positive effects of social media have not been mentioned. Passage A has used a bit of positivity by mentioning that tennagers/young adults have reduced the use of social media but in passage B, there is no positivity related to social networking sites.

The structure of passage A is a newspaper article and it is mainly for adults, young adults and people who read newspapers whereas passage B is from an online article which shows that it is mainly for young adults and people interested in the harmful effects of social media. As the passages are mainly directed towards young adults, they feel as if they need to stop or reduce the use of social media.

In passage A the author has used jargons such as “Facebook”, “Myspace”. Similarly in passage B, the author has used jargons like “Twitter”,”Bebo”. By using jargons, both the writers have added emphasis to the text and by using professional language, the passages become more believable and the reader feels as if the writer knows a lot about the topic.

Similarly, in passage A and B both, the writers have used a lot of facts and figures. For example, in passage A, “21% in 2007, 15-24 year olds” and in passage B, “More than 150 million”. By using facts and figures, the writers support their point of views believable evidence.

The vocabulary used in passage A is a little heavier than the words used in passage B. For example, “proliferation, “adolescent”, “exodus”. This adds more weight to passage A and as passage A was more informal, these words and a bit of formality to the text. But in passage B, the vocabulary used is easier than passage A, for example, “constant”, “instant”, “exposure”. As the tone in passage A is more formal, to balance the ratio of formality and informality, the writers have added heavy vocabulary where needed to make the text seem more authoritative.

Both the passages have used expert opinions to support their text. For example, the author of passage A has taken opinions from “Peter Philips”, “James Thickett” and in passage B, the opinions have been taken from “Baroness Greenfield”, “Jane Healy”. As both the writers have shared opinions of different people, both the texts become more believable to the reader at mentioning the person who said the dialogue makes the text more informative.

The theme of both the passages is same as both texts are mainly talking about the harmful effects of social media but the content is a little different. Passage A is talking about how “teenagers or young adults” have left social networking sites as the title suggests but passage B is talking about how social websites harm “childrens” brains. Both the texts are talking about different age groups which shows the reader that there are different point of views about social media’s harmful effects.

Both passage A and passage B have used humor in the text. For example, in passage A, “mothers investing in ra-ra skirts”, “uncles wearing skinny jeans” and in passage B, “small babies need constant reassurance that they exist”. By using humor, the authors have toned down the serious mood in the text and have made it more interesting to the reader.

The author of passage A has not used any inclusive language but the author of passage B has, for example, “We know how…they exist…”. By using this type of language, the author includes the reader in the text and grabs the readers attention. Even though passage A hasn’t used inclusive language, its tone is more informal which also grabs the readers attention.

Both the writers have a used a great deal of evidence to support the text and have used different techniques to engage the reader. Even though the tone and style of writing of both passages is different, both the writers have successfully conveyed their messages in different ways.

Q). How do the authors of both passages present the explosion of the cyber-world? Compare the language, style and content of the both passages using close reference. By Xainab Shuja


Passage A is an extract from a newspaper article, titled, “it’s so over, cool Cyberkids abandon Social Networking Sites”. The genre of the passage is non-fiction and the audience is people who read newspaper, adults and young adults. Passage B is an extract from a newspaper report. Passage B is an extract from newspaper titled,” Social Websites Harm Children’s Brains”. The genre of the passage is non-fiction and the audience includes people who read newspaper, adults and people who want to know about the harmful effect of the social media on one’s brain. Passage A is from “The Guardian” and Passage B is extract from “Mail Online”. The overall intended effect of the passage is to persuade the reader not to use Social Media, and both the passages use the different linguistic devices such logic, evidence, statistics and the linguistic devices to convey their messages.

The tone of the Passage A is informative, and changes or alternated with the formal and semi-formal, for example” the surest way” is formal and “skinny jeans” and “ra-ra skirts” add a hint of casualty/semi-formalness. As a result, the reader is able to relate to passage as well as extract information from it. The tone of the Passage B is very argumentative and aggressive, but still maintaining a sense of formality, e.g.: “are causing alarming changes” and “circulate text messages”. Because the tone is strongly persuasive, the writer enforces his opinions onto the reader. The first tone was relatable figurative language and everyday words to get the reader to relate to the passage to agree with it, it has lighter approach.

The evident theme of the both passages is “Social Media”, and it is that theme that one must keep in my mind while analyzing or comparing the two texts. This theme is constantly depicted in passage B with the phrases such as “Social Networking is causing alarming changes” and “Social networking could leave an entire generation”. Whereas in passage A, we get to know the themes through jargons suck as “facebook” and “twitter”. Both the passages try to keep the theme as explicit as possible to bring about awareness of the issue being discussed.

The attitude of the passage A is very matter of fact and straight to the point. The writer wastes no time in letting us know what the issue is. He fills in with the a little bit of rhetoric before dishing out the facts, but other than that uses phrases like “are regularly checking up” and “older people seems to be embracing “ to get his point across. The attitude of passage B is strongly biased. The writer tilts all his arguments to hid favor, tossing neutrality aside. The attitudes affect the reader in different way.Passage A lightly persuades the reader to “consider” using social media less, while in passage B, the writer forces his views upon the reader, so the reader feels like his responsibility to agree to the writer.

The expert opinion given in the first passage is that of James Thickett, “clearly, take up among the 16-year olds … is getting older”. Similarly in passage B, the writer provides the opinion of Sue Palmer,” we are seeing children’s brains … for millennia”. Both the writers use expert opinions to back up their arguments. Psychologically, humans are more likely to agree to something if it is coming from an expert or well-known person.

The language used in passage A, as Goldilocks would say, is “just right”. The language used is neither too complex (excluding a few jargons) nor too simple, but a nice comfortable middle. The only time unique words are used is where there is exaggeration, and that of course is for a reason. The language used in passage B uses very strong words such as “alarming changes” and “instant gratification”. For passage A, the writer kept the language style fairly simple, embellishing only where necessary. In other words, the writer wants his message conveyed clearly and simply.  Passage B, on the other hand, uses strong words to essentialise the message, and ingrain the point in reader’s mind.

The usage of’  m statistics in both passages is very clear. In passage A, the writer says “from 55% at the start of last year to 50% this year” and “30% of British adults have a facebook profile”. In passage, the writer comments, “150 million use facebook “and “six million signed up for twitter “. Although passage B uses statistics in a more exaggerated way, the usage of statistics more or less the same in both passages. The usage of facts makes the passage more genuine and believable to the reader, and he feels like he can trust the information.

Both the texts use punctuation in certain ways to achieve. For example in passage A, the writer says, ”has dropped for the first time-“and “16 -year -olds is very high …”. Here, the writer uses hyphens and ellipses to emphasize the phrase, or as said in show business, “pause for effect”. The writer also uses commas more than full stops to create a continuum of thought, and a good flow of reading for the reader to enjoy. In passage B, punctuation does not really play a vital role in the writing, but the writer has “paused for effect” in some places” extremely profitable – “, “if there is a true increase-“. This use of punctuation makes the reader pause and think in some places, already forming his opinions.

We cannot exactly say that the language used in passage A is simple. Words like “proliferation”, “trawling” and “adolescent exodus” prevent us from doing so. This vocabulary should be described as unique, because it is a rather odd choice of wording and is only used in places where the writer has meant to exaggerate, e.g.: “trawling the pages of facebook”, “travestying the outer reaches of MySpace “. The vocabulary in passage B, however, can only be described as heavy. Coupled with jargons and such, words like “engage””, millennia”, “eminent” and “gratification” make it evident to the reader that a serious issue is being discussed. This usage of vocabulary helps to awaken the reader’s senses and allow him to be fully aware of the topic at hand.

The clear use of jargons is maintained throughout passages. For example, in passage A, “facebook”, “MySpace”, and in passage B,”Bebo” and “twitter”. Using in any kind of writing. Using jargons in any kind of writing gives the reader the sense that the writer is well informed on the subject he is writing about.

The writers of the both passages also provide evidence to their claims in both texts. For example, in passage A, the writer names people such as James Thickett and Peter Phillips, and in passage B, Sue Palmer and Sharon Greenfield. The writer provides evidence as backup and sort of safety net for his claims in other words; the evidence provided proves the writer’s authenticity.

Exaggeration is one of the most obvious tools that the writers thought would come in handy. In passage A, the writer extremely stresses out some points this way – “trawling the pages of facebook”, 0.”Travestying the outer reaches from MySpace”, “is causing an adolescent exodus”, and “proliferation of Parents”. In the second passage, exaggeration is done mainly through the usage of bold words like “instant gratification”, “rewiring the brain”, and “conversation may eventually give away”. This exaggeration helps the writer highlight and enhance an argument without having to make it too complex.

The most distinctive way that both passages are different is the type and the use of figurative language. In passage A, some jargons are used here and there, “facebook”, ”MySpace” along with one or two metaphors “their love of being online”, “explosion behind the usage of twitter”. A personification is used “kill a youth trend”, and “adopt as its own”. Besides that, the writers helps us visualize a few things through relatable examples, such as, “uncles wearing skinny jeans”, and “mothers investing in rah-rah skirts”. Other than this, no such figurative language is used. In passage B, however, different types of figurative language are used. An old idiom is used, “strive a chord” as well as “buzzing” which is an onomatopoeia, and “flight or fight”, which is alliteration/assonance. In the first passage, figurative language is used to make the flow of reading easier and interesting for the reader, but in passage B, figurative language is used only to emphasize a particular phrase, e.g. :”most games only trigger flight or fight” “part of the brain”.

Both of the writer’s aim was to persuade the reader that using the Social Media can be harmful. The writers have used relatable examples and figurative language to amplify the arguments, and uses factual elements such as evidence, statistics, and expert opinions to remove any doubts from the reader’s mind. Both of the passages manage to persuade the reader, if not varying in tone, style and vocabulary. When analyzing both the passages, one must appreciate the diversity with which one can present two topics.

Q3. AO3: Comparison Question By: Esha Shahzad 10-M


Extract A-‘it’s so over: cool cyber kids abandon social networking sites’ and extract B-‘Social Websites Harm Children’s Brains’ are both non-fiction newspaper articles that talk about social media and use techniques to back up their arguments.

The main idea of talking about social media in both passages is similar, however the content and purpose of both passages is quite different. Extract A mainly informs the reader about how there is a decline in the use of social media amidst youngsters and how it is getting more and more popular among adults who know exactly how to ‘’kill a youth trend’’. On the other hand, Extract B informs the reader about harms and dangers of social media mainly in children and how their ‘’social lives depend on iy’’. These habits can harness serious mental illnesses and can infantilize the brain. Children should instead learn to ‘’make real relations with people’’.

Both passages are written for the purpose to inform the reader. Thos is evident by use of facts and expert advice in the passage. However, extract A is intended for a more general audience compared to extract B which appeals mostly to parents concerned about their childrens’ excessive use of social media.

As mentioned earlier, both authors make use of rhetorical techniques in the passage. Firstly, both authors use facts and statistics in the passage. In extract A, there is a much broader use of statistics as a form of backing up the argument. This is evident when the author compares the use of social media in children (declined from ‘’55% to 50 %’’) to that of adults (40% to 46%). In extract B, the author mentions how ‘’Over 150 million people use Facebook’’ and how they should instead opt for socializing without using their mobile phones and social media.

Secondly, expert advice is used in both passages to add weight to their argument and reinforce a point. It helps manipulate the reader into believing that the authors are aware of what they are talking about. In extract A, advice from Peter Phillips (regulator’s head of strategy) and James Thicket (director of market research) is taken who further prove that how popularity of social media is increasing in adults, while the opposite is happening in children. In extract B, expert advice from Baroness Greenfield (Oxford University neuroscientist) and Jane Healy (Educational psychologist) who are both medical experts and stress on how extended periods of time on social media will cause a ‘’sharp decline’’ in their abilities.

The language of both passages is semi-formal. Extract A uses heavy and unique vocabulary such as ‘’proliferation’’ and an allusion to ‘’exodus’’ is also made. Jargons such as ‘’cyber world’’ are also used. These techniques are a form of LOGOS which create a sense of authenticity and reliability in the reader’s mind. On the other hand, extract B uses simple vocabulary with multiple jargons such as ‘’fight or flight’’ and ‘’micro blogging’’ which add coherency in the passage and an impression is given off to the audience that the author is fully aware of the subject.

Both passages make use of figures of speech. However, in extract A only uses metaphor – ‘’kill a youth trend’’ and exaggeration – ‘’behind the explosion’’ which both engage the reader and make a dramatic point. In extract B, there is a broader variety of figures of speech. Idiom such as ‘’strike a chord’’ are used instead of vague, simple phrases to engage the reader and draw their attention to how alarming a recent study could be for parents. Examples of onomatopoeia such as ‘’buzzing’’ and imagery such as ‘’killing’’ and ‘’skinning’’ can also be found which helps the reader visualize and evokes a sense of empathy in the reader for the poor, tormented animals.

Furthermore, extract B uses triples such as ‘’killing, skinning and butchering’’ which paints a picture of absolute torture in the reader’s mind and a simple process of making food is turned dramatic and empathy-seeking. In extract A, there is an absence of trong adjectives and the focus is more on using professional help and statistics to prove a point.

The syntax of both passages is similar. They both use short paragraphs and short sentences to make it easier to read and make the layout more visually and aesthetically appealing to the reader. It also helps the passage from sounding dull and monotonous. Extract B also makes use of dashes which help separate a thought and allow the reader to pause and think about the material provided in the passage.

In conclusion, both passages successfully talk about social media however, there purpose is achieved differently. Extract A focuses on adults and tries to stop them from ‘’killing a youth trend’’ and Extract B focuses on ‘’alarming changes’’ to children’s’ minds by excessive and constant use of social media.