Category Archives: AO2

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meanings. By Hisham


This passage titled as getting lost is written by Matt Imman. The genre of this piece of text is nonfiction with themes of an adventure and traveling through the writer’s way to  her solo trip to Koreas Green Tea Fields. The writer’s tone is friendly yet entertaining. ” but my korean is virtually non-existent” and “I hopped on the bus and tried to relax with a book, focusing on the book was difficult as I had never done this journey before”. So despite  his seeming kindness, he was no help for me” The structure of this passage is in the form of a narrative text and the language varies from informal to semi formal. The language of the text is straightforward and very engaging and the vocabulary is simple . The extract holds various techniques to attach the reader to this extract. As for the audience of this text is mainly adults and tourists who are interested in traveling and at some extent interested in disadvantages and foreign problems. The text also creates an awareness of the problems which a tourist might face in foreign countries. Furthermore, the theme of the text can be recognized as travel. The writer also has used personification in the end of his passage “The roads will take you.”

Furthermore, the writer begins with a brief link to her past  writing about a solo weekend to Koreas Boseong Green Tea Fields and based on the writer’s experience of touring Korea. The first and foremost detectable feature can be the amount of the description the author has used and how he has coupled words with adjectives. “I thank the universe for smartphones because without mine I wouldn’t have had the slightest clue of where to go.” “ At this point in the story I should mention that it was raining and that I also had an injured foot.” This brightens up the text and adds clarity  in it  and makes the reader attached to the passage. Stats are mentioned  during the text “At 11pm, 6 hours late”.The writer has incorporated multiple figures of speech for effect. “I couldn’t help but smile” The writer used simple words like “relish” and “ Miserable” The writer also uses irony “ I would have only been miserable for the duration of the trip”. The author has also used rhetorical questions in his passage, “Where would have been the fun in that?”

In conclusion, the writer has used various linguistic elements and techniques such as simple vocabulary, figures of speech and sarcasm to add effect to the passage. By this, she engages the reader, sustains the audience’s interest, makes her point distinctively and creates a highly emotive picture.


Q) Explain how Barack Obama presents his experience of seeing his father through the eyes of his classmates. By Ali Ul Qudur


The title of this passage is, ‘Barack Obama’s Autobiography’. This title immediately shows the reader that this text is an account written by Barack Obama himself in the form of an autobiography.

The structure of this autobiography comprises mostly short paragraphs with five lines or less and the writer has used many quotations throughout the autobiography. An example could be of “My grandfather, see, he’s a chief”. This entertains the reader and makes them believe the writer’s point as this is a type of technique which makes the reader think that the incidents in the passage were not fabricated. Also in the sentence structure, the writer has used a variety of sentence structures. The most prominent ones are simple and compound sentences like ‘As the words tumbled out of my mouth, and I felt the boys readjust to me…’. This shows the reader that the writer is narrating an incident and has summarised it into a long sentence. This creates an effect as the reader understands the writer’s point. Also, the writer has organised the autobiography in such a way that the reader enjoys reading it as the order of incidents is very convincing.

Secondly, the purpose of this passage is to inform the reader and so that the reader is aware of the challenges in Barack Obama’s life. Apart from the challenges, in the end, he is also proud as his father was called to his school to explain the life of people in Kenya, Africa. However, this is also entertaining as the writer mentions that his father explained Kenya very beautifully. The writer writes ‘ describing the deep gash in the earth where mankind had first appeared’. This is entertaining and informative at the same time because the reader gets to understand the incidents which took place in Obama’s life and is entertained by how the writer has beautifully described the incident.

Furthermore, the language is slightly formal but colourful as the writer uses words like      ‘deep gash’ to describe the soil and ‘ thick oak desk’ which also describes a desk which may have been ordinary. It is slightly informal as there are a lot of quotations which are casual conversations between the friends. An example could be of ‘ cause the tribe is full of warriors’. The writer could have fabricated the autobiography by switching ‘ cause’ with ‘ because’ but he did not which is very interesting and grabs the reader’s attention. This does not make the passage boring.

Moreover, the Style of this passage is narrative as the writer explains the incidents of a day when his father was called. An example can be of the quotations which are generously used in the passage and when the writer writes about when his father came up and described the challenges Kenyans faced and their lifestyle. This results in the reader to be more engaged and develops interest as Obama is an influential figure. So, narrating incidents with quotations is a very convincing technique.

Moving on, the writer has also used many figures of Speech like ‘Words tumbled out of my mouth’ which is a personification and could be an idiom as it doesn’t make sense. Since this gives an inanimate object of human characteristics, it engages the reader and entertains him. This makes the reader realise that the passage is not bland and that he would like to carry on reading.

Also, This passage has incorporated many rhetorical questions like ‘What about after that?’ and ‘I mean, will you go back and be a prince?’. Even Though these questions are not being asked by the writer to the audience, it still is very effective as the writer can fully convey his message and his thoughts later on by answering them. Also, the reader develops interest as they build up curiosity and want to get the respective answers.

Continuing, the writer has used pathos and has emotionally engaged the writer as he wants the reader to be affected by what he says and wants the reader to feel the author’s feelings. He says ‘ I couldn’t imagine worse news’, ‘i spent that night…trying to suppress thoughts of the inevitable’ and ‘ Each time I remembered, my body squirmed’. This entertains the reader as he gets to understand the writer’s feelings at that specific moment in time. Many writers may also emotionally relate.

In conclusion, the writer has successfully narrated the incidents of his life in the form of an autobiography and has still managed to entertain the reader by using many techniques and colourful words which entertain the reader and make him greedy to read more.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meanings. By Daim Jafree


The text is called Getting lost, and it’s been written by Matt Inman. The text is about the author’s weekend getaway, and as such it’s been written with the structure of a first person narrative. The text has an amalgamation of language, with the first half having predominantly very descriptive, and objective language. In the second half the writer uses openly emotive language. This particular use of the writers language was done so that the emotion he displays in the latter half of the passage would be more enhanced due to the sudden switch in the style, and because the first half of the passage is so descriptive it really allows you to see what the writer was seeing so that later on you can understand why he felt a certain way. The audience for this passage is quite general, but you could say that it is of greater interest to travel enthusiasts because of the stark similarities between his account and a travel review. The toe of the passage makes an uncharacteristic twist, the passage starts off with a very monotone style, then when the writer starts talking about the lessons they learnt they suddenly move to a tone of frustration, and hindsight where they also highlight the positives of their trip. This tone switch makes it so the reader feels more engaged when the writer starts talking about the lessons learnt, in a fashion where it seems like the writer purposely made the first half a bit more dreary so that the latter half hits you with a huge metaphorical ‘bang.’

There is a sense of irony in the text, as it starts off with the writers unassuming attitude with them saying,” focusing on the book was difficult…” then moving to a situation that incites panic,for example, “ as the rain began to pick up, i kept wandering the streets, with only a general idea of where i was going.” The transition from the writers privileged and nonchalant attitude where his biggest problem was not being able to read a book, to him being stranded in a foreign country whose language he does not speak is quite the spectacle. Irony creates a sense of amusement and tension for the audience that keeps them engaged.

The writer makes an intriguing style change at the end, where he starts looking back in this introspective, and retrospective manner, for example,” Travel has taught me to relish the times when things don’t go as planned.” He starts being philosophical and he purposely does this because coming into this text you did not expect a life lesson, and because of the very nature of a life lesson it makes the passages ending extremely impactful and unforgettable, to the effect that you would be thinking about it for a substantial while after the first read through

The writer’s use of language is very informal, for example words and phrases like,” And plus, go with the flow, I thanked the universe for cell phones.” This use of informal language makes the reader feel comfortable and relaxed while reading the passage, this technique has its own way of generating interest, if the text is always intense it leads with the reader being exhausted with the length of the tension with no respite, whereas in this case the text ends up being more tranquil while reading. This ultimately ends up giving more impact to the ending as well due to the unexpected shift from informal to introspective.

The text has a combination of short and long sentences. For example, “ i hopped on the bus and tried to relax with a book” and, “when you allow yourself to go……. gone to perfection.” This mixture of sentences is extremely important for this passage specifically, longer sentences allow you to add more detail whereas shorter ones make the message short and concise. This passage has a seemingly purposeful monotone beginning and for that reason keeping the readers engaged solely lies on the structure and length of the sentences so that the reader does not get bored, and the writer uses them immaculately. 

The writer uses alliteration like “fact frustrated.” Alliteration allows for the reader to feel emphasis on a certain point because subconsciously we have a recognition of rhythms and patterns, and alliteration do just that, it also allows for sentences to flow more smoothly on the tongue, and overall enhance the experience of the reader.

In conclusion, this text is about the experience of the writer who got lost in Korea and had to contend with all sorts of things not going his way. Then the writer moves on to how this exact innate spontaneity in travelling is the reason that he loves it so much and that its like a representation of life.

Q)How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Abdullah Yousaf


This passage is written by ‘ Matt Imnan. ” The passage name is getting lost. In this passage the writer is telling she is travelling in a bus. The tone of the passage was getting lost in a big city.

Writer has used big paragraphs to describe her getting lost in a big city e.g  “What I did not mention was that on the way to fields I got utterly lost.” This shows the writer is describing her experience and what she felt like getting lost. 

 Second most important technique writer used in the passage is Jargon e.g “Korea”s Boseong Green Tea Fields, Google map and Daejeon. This technique is used for giving references to certain places or topics

Third technique used in the passage is repetition which is repetition of sentence or word e.g “his seeming kindness, he was of no help for me”. This has 2 effects on the passage showing emphasis on the topic or writer or author has a lack of ideas.

The writer has used simple vocabulary by using the words like, mention,terminal,relax,hopped and pouring. This shows the writer has not put irrelevant information or ideas.

Finally, the writer has used a lot of alliteration, e.g “thank the,have had, tried to, to the and after. The writer used this technique to show extra impact on the passage.

From this we have learnt that whenever we’re going to some place we should have our necessary things with us and have an idea where to go and what to do.


Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Ramiz Hasham


The passage given has been entitled as ‘getting lost’. The structure of this passage is in the form of a narrative, where the writer is recalling events they have experienced. We may also conclude that this extract has been taken from a journal or a weekly blog, where the writer writes about events that have transpired within their life. The purpose of this passage is to share an experience or moment in the writer’s life so as to amuse or enlighten others. The language used by the author in this text is highly descriptive and illustrative, where the writer describes his experience by painting a vivid picture. This text is directed more so towards travelers who may relate to such an experience, but it is important to know that the text may be interpreted and enjoyed by a wide variety of audiences as the writer’s language make it easily accessible. The writer has used a varying tone throughout, wherein the beginning of the tone is quite straightforward and informative. But as the text progresses the writer adds a subtle sub tone of humor. The writer has used a plethora of varying linguistic techniques in order to appeal this passage more towards travelers so that they can relate to such an experience but has also not used complex terminology that only travelers would understand, this allows even more people to be amused and informed by reading this text. 

Onto the main body of the passage, we can see that this text possesses various stylistic techniques in order to attract any reader towards the text and to keep their interest as they read it. One major stylistic effect the writer has used is the use of imagery in order to create vivid descriptions for the reader. “At this point in the story should mention that it was raining and that I also had an injured foot. You can now picture me limping around a completely foreign city in the pouring rain.” The quotation above proves the point about the writers use of imagery, as in this specific example we can see how the writer creates a lucid image of the situation he was in. This allows the reader to better relate to such an event and therefore prolongs the reader’s interest in the piece of writing. 

Proceeding with other examples of the writers use of stylistic devices, we can see that the writer has also used a small but feasible amount of personification in the text. Point in case, “I quickly (my battery was close to dying) downloaded the subway app for Daejeon and found the stop closest to the bus terminal.” The use of personification allows the reader to connect with that specific experience of the author. In this case, by calling his phone dead he explains the extent of the crisis he was in. It allows the reader to better understand the text. 

The writer has also used a mix of linguistic devices and effects. A major effect is the use of colloquial language. This is evident in the following quotation, “When you allow yourself to ‘go with the flow’ as some people say,” The use of colloquial language allows the writer to stay true to his tone as he now enforces a more relaxed version of his events, this allows the reader to read the passage without feeling the need to focus on each and every work and analyzing it as some would do in a formal passage. 

All in all, the writer has used a varying degree of linguistic and stylistic devices in order to achieve his main goal of trying to relate his experience towards other travelers that can relate to his experience . The write has used a varying tone which has created many different effects on the readers themselves.

Q) Explain how Karin Swanson presents her ideas and opinions about being a sports fan. By Syed Ali Hasan Rizvi


This passage ‘I am a Sports Fan’ is adapted from an article by Karin Swanson. The theme of the passage is ‘sports’. The purpose of the passage is to inform the reader about the connection of the writer with sports or if looked from another perspective, to inform to reader that females can also enjoy sports or invest their time in it.The language used in this passage is colloquial, engaging, casual, inclusive, and simple with the use of compound words. The tone of the passage is opinionated. The audience consists of young adults, adults, sports enthusiasts/people who read sports articles in their free time.

The passage is written in a first-person perspective which immediately puts the reader inside the narrator’s head, which allows for an intimate portrayal of thoughts and emotions. The extent of casual/informal language used can be highlighted as the writer has used colloquial language in the passage such as ‘hang out with the guys’ and ‘underdogs’. This creates a conversational tone between the reader and the writer hence, giving a relaxing effect. Rich vocabulary such as ‘perpetuate’, ‘stereotypes’, and ‘intensely scrutinizes’ is also used, through this the writer is able to express herself with even bigger depths.

Then, in ending of the introduction the use of parenthesis can also be seen; ‘(least of all college basketball)’, providing the reader with supplementary information. The utilization of Em dashes/long dashes in the second paragraph: ‘In my experience it’s a fine line – guys typically find it attractive that a girl likes sport,…’ and ‘But, there are many different sorts of fans – some people just care about a particular team…’ adds emphasis and the writer’s experience is shared easily and manifestly with the reader.

Furthermore, Karin Swanson has also given references side by side, such as ‘the football World Cup’, ‘Olympics’, ‘East Coast of America’, and ‘UCLA basketball game.’ This persuades the reader and makes the writer’s ideas and opinions more clear.

The writer has used multiple figures of speech in the passage to heighten effect and to convey her ideas and opinions. Starting off with Metaphor. To wit, ‘putting blind faith in a group of people you will probably never meet’, ‘team hit the court’, ‘solid five years’, and ‘stampeded’. Through this the writer basically adds spice and a layer of richness to her writing, and conveys vivid imagery to the reader in order to transcend literal meanings.

Secondly, the writer has used Alliteration, shown by, ‘sacrificed sleep’ and ‘through thick and thin’. This adds emphasis and reinforces meaning.

The writer has used exaggeration in her passage. Point the case, ‘sacrificed sleep’ and ‘stuck with them through thick and thin’. This makes it easier for the reader to understand what the writer is trying to share or persuade by dramatically reinforcing the point.

Next, the writer has given statistics in the second last paragraph (line number 40) which is ‘Peruvians at 12,000 feet along the Inca trail’. Through the evidence provided by Karin Swanson, her statement is supported and the reader is positioned and persuaded easily. 

Finally, the writer has used repetition in the conclusion of the passage; ‘regardless of gender or class or ideology or age.’ The repetition of ‘or’ creates rhythm and the reader finds it more interesting. Through the use of repetition in the ending of the passage, emphasis and prominence is given to the conclusion of the passage.

Winding up, the writer has used a variety of techniques such as humour, exaggeration, anecdote, phrasal verbs, idiomatic phrases, along with inclusive and colloquial language. The ‘cherry on top’ being the linguistic elements, simple vocabulary, and figures of speech such as Metaphor and Alliteration. It would be correct to say that the writer, Karin Swanson was successful to engage the reader and also perpetuate the audience’s interest.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Shayaan Khan


The title of this passage is Getting Lost, which is a straightforward title, telling you about what will happen in this extract. It is written by Matt Inman and is a straight page taken out from his books. The purpose of this text is to show people that if you felt like you lost and have no ways to go, you still go with a smile on your face because if you do, it may take you to the destination you want to see. It tells you to never give up and keep on fighting for the thing you longed for.

The writer uses informal language, this is more friendly and feels natural for the reader, as he knows that this is not that much of a serious story. This extract is meant to be for adults mainly as children cannot travel without their parents or guardian. Adults can get lost easily without knowing about any of the areas, and this passage tells them that they must not put on an angry face even if they think they have lost.

The tone of this passage is informal and chaotic, the reader explains his journey in a quick way without wasting any time. This can be called chaotic as his writing sometimes gets messy but that is the gist of the story and makes it work even more, this way the reader can engage in the story more and feels more relaxed then needing to spot every single detail. The main theme of this extract is ‘Survive with a smile’, this means that you must work hard towards your goal even if you have no knowledge of getting to it, it makes you strive for it and try to get there as soon as possible. By this, it makes the goal a more worthy destination and gives you more satisfaction.

The writer tends to go for the more straightforward passage, like “In the middle of nowhere and essentially unable to communicate with anyone.”, this shows that he does not want to waste time in telling every single detail and makes the text more interesting for the reader, giving him a feeling of satisfaction. Plus, with this, it allows him to send the message without over-complicating it and gets the message straight to the readers head. He also shows the message one more time in a separate subtitle passage to make sure that people did not get confused by the story and that they were not only reading for fun. He shows this as a nightmare in his first subtitle’s paragraph but in the second subtitle, he makes sure that people do not think of this as some pity train but as a story about a man striving to reach his goal as soon as possible.

The writer also tends to ask more rhetorical questions, as shown, “Where would have been the fun in that?” This is used to make the reader more into the story and made him think about the passage way more often. A rhetorical question sticks the question to the reader’s mind and makes him think about the passage a lot.

 The writer also likes to use alliteration as it is shown in the extract, “…fact…frustrated…”. This gives a more rhythmic flow to the story and makes it smoother. By doing this, it allows the reader to be focused on a particular part of the text and makes him more absorbed in the passage. Not only this, but this can also make him enjoy some parts of the text and makes him want to read it again and again just to get to that specific part to catch the same feeling he felt while reading it for the first time.

The writer also uses the exclamation marks, such as “‘go with the flow’” this is used to  create a sense of sarcasm and gives the reader a more comfortable feeling with the passage and allows him to read the passage more comfortably and not be too disturbed by it. 

The writer uses first person to give it more personal feeling as he uses,”I…I”, this is to make the reader in the exact same shows as the writer and feel the same emotions as him and not make him feel like it is a straightforward story.

The writer uses more straightforward sentences and tells it in such a way that the reader feels comfortable and is more invested in the story.

Q) How has the author used style and language to convey meaning? By Alisher Janassayev


The passage written by Matt Inman named getting lost is about how foreign tourist is getting lost in totally different environment for him. He was traveling to Korea, Boesong Green Tea Fields. This trip to Korea will forever remain in his head. 

The form of this passage is a story. Matt Inman, is a story about how a tourist got lost in an absolutely hopeless situation. Writer has given a hyperbole in the lines 3-4. “I thank the universe for smartphones”. It create a larger-than-life effect and overly stress a specific point. In his situation, the smartphone became his main savior. 

On the bus stop, he couldn’t relax and focus on his book. This certain feeling of insecurity was present in the author. He started his nervousness from the fact that he had never overcome such a path to the fact that was he sitting at the right bus stop. 

Passage discovered the theme of getting lost, unknown city and language barrier. the language barrier played a major role when he tried to ask the driver about rightness of his path. The audience of a passage is: travelers, future tourist of Korea and thrill fans. 

Author has given absolute hopelessness. He added about his injured leg and outside rain. A terrible picture emerges as a tourist in an unknown city for him got lost with a wounded leg and in the rain. He took out his half-dead phone and started downloading the Subway map. This is how he got to his right path. 

Writer has given an irony, “ All is these thing can be extremely frustrating, as I walked down those unknown streets with a limp and raining on my face, I couldn’t help but smile”. In such a difficult situation, not everyone can smile. We see that the author has come to terms with the situation, with a smile on his face he went to look for a way out of this problem. 

In final analysis, the author never regrets this trip, although he still did not reach his destination. The author justifies this by the fact that without all this, without a broken leg and without rain, his story would be boring and only about Korea. Perhaps with this he showed Korea from the other side.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Anna Khattak 


This is a passage taken from the Washington post and is titled “some birds are so stressed by noise pollution it looks like they have PYSD.” 

The structure is that of an article ,the genre is nonfiction.The language of the passage is simple yet engaging and the audience can range from young adults to adults. The tone of the passage is semi formal while the purpose is to inform the reader. 

The author has used quite a bit of pathos throughout the passage,we can see this in the lines “the bluebird didn’t realise what she was getting herself into”, “her stress hormone levels become skewed”, etc. 

These have an intended effect of invoking a sense of pity for the bird, in the audience. 

Another literary technique used by the author is the use of triples, “noise pollution ,abnormal levels of stress hormones and lower survival rates”, this has an intended effect of engaging the readers, making the passage more interesting and overall making the passage flow easily. 

Throughout the text we also see a lot of quotes from medical experts and experts on the topic, for example “noise is causing birds to be… offsprings”, “There’s evidence that being able to have a full auditory experience is essential for optimal health in both species” etc. This makes the passage seem more well researched ,professional and believable. 

The author has also used Jargon sporadically throughout the passage, for example “cardiovascular problems”, “ constant arousal and hyper vigilance” etc This has an intended effect of again making the passage more professional and well researched and also helps engage the reader more. 

The writer has used short dramatic sentences abundantly in the passage, we can see these in the lines “But this was an acoustic degradation of the environment” , “it gets really tricky” these have an intended effect of making the passage more dramatic and interesting to read.

The author has also used references in the passage for example , “Goldilocks distance” This makes the passage more interesting for the reader. 

With the use of these stylistic and linguistic devices the author has been able to deliver his point quite clearly to the audience, while simultaneously engaging them in the passage.