Describe (a moment of) madness. By Ahmad Raja


(Searching for something in the river)

“GOLD GOLD GOLD!”, Screamed Hajaturian  

Hajaturian couldn’t control his excitement, his happiness, his emotions.

Hands splashing on the water made water droplets fly up in the air and the sunlight which was coming on his face was refracted by the happy water droplets which made tiny rainbows on Hajaturian’s beautiful face,having two hazel eyes looking like the world’s most beautiful and priceless gems by the sun’s rays traveling in. 

His beautiful big smile surrounded by his blackish white beard had become a safe haven for the water droplets, the droplets which didn’t want to go back in the river, wanted to stay out and see the outer world, to see and feel Hajaturian’s emotions, the reason for his excitement.

“What a madman.”, Giggled the handful of people around Hajaturian who were volunteers assisting him just for his joyful company.

“GOLD!”, They also screamed.

Laughter and screams of people screaming ‘gold’ had taken over the environment.

A mad yet lovely environment was made by this.

Just imagine a scene of a movie in slow motion, people splashing water, having huge smiles on their faces, laughing and hugging each other, everyone kissing Hajaturian’s cheeks and praising him.

Making snow angels in the flowing river.

A fate changing moment, a moment of love, a moment or madness. 


Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meanings. By Daim Jafree


The text is called Getting lost, and it’s been written by Matt Inman. The text is about the author’s weekend getaway, and as such it’s been written with the structure of a first person narrative. The text has an amalgamation of language, with the first half having predominantly very descriptive, and objective language. In the second half the writer uses openly emotive language. This particular use of the writers language was done so that the emotion he displays in the latter half of the passage would be more enhanced due to the sudden switch in the style, and because the first half of the passage is so descriptive it really allows you to see what the writer was seeing so that later on you can understand why he felt a certain way. The audience for this passage is quite general, but you could say that it is of greater interest to travel enthusiasts because of the stark similarities between his account and a travel review. The toe of the passage makes an uncharacteristic twist, the passage starts off with a very monotone style, then when the writer starts talking about the lessons they learnt they suddenly move to a tone of frustration, and hindsight where they also highlight the positives of their trip. This tone switch makes it so the reader feels more engaged when the writer starts talking about the lessons learnt, in a fashion where it seems like the writer purposely made the first half a bit more dreary so that the latter half hits you with a huge metaphorical ‘bang.’

There is a sense of irony in the text, as it starts off with the writers unassuming attitude with them saying,” focusing on the book was difficult…” then moving to a situation that incites panic,for example, “ as the rain began to pick up, i kept wandering the streets, with only a general idea of where i was going.” The transition from the writers privileged and nonchalant attitude where his biggest problem was not being able to read a book, to him being stranded in a foreign country whose language he does not speak is quite the spectacle. Irony creates a sense of amusement and tension for the audience that keeps them engaged.

The writer makes an intriguing style change at the end, where he starts looking back in this introspective, and retrospective manner, for example,” Travel has taught me to relish the times when things don’t go as planned.” He starts being philosophical and he purposely does this because coming into this text you did not expect a life lesson, and because of the very nature of a life lesson it makes the passages ending extremely impactful and unforgettable, to the effect that you would be thinking about it for a substantial while after the first read through

The writer’s use of language is very informal, for example words and phrases like,” And plus, go with the flow, I thanked the universe for cell phones.” This use of informal language makes the reader feel comfortable and relaxed while reading the passage, this technique has its own way of generating interest, if the text is always intense it leads with the reader being exhausted with the length of the tension with no respite, whereas in this case the text ends up being more tranquil while reading. This ultimately ends up giving more impact to the ending as well due to the unexpected shift from informal to introspective.

The text has a combination of short and long sentences. For example, “ i hopped on the bus and tried to relax with a book” and, “when you allow yourself to go……. gone to perfection.” This mixture of sentences is extremely important for this passage specifically, longer sentences allow you to add more detail whereas shorter ones make the message short and concise. This passage has a seemingly purposeful monotone beginning and for that reason keeping the readers engaged solely lies on the structure and length of the sentences so that the reader does not get bored, and the writer uses them immaculately. 

The writer uses alliteration like “fact frustrated.” Alliteration allows for the reader to feel emphasis on a certain point because subconsciously we have a recognition of rhythms and patterns, and alliteration do just that, it also allows for sentences to flow more smoothly on the tongue, and overall enhance the experience of the reader.

In conclusion, this text is about the experience of the writer who got lost in Korea and had to contend with all sorts of things not going his way. Then the writer moves on to how this exact innate spontaneity in travelling is the reason that he loves it so much and that its like a representation of life.

Q)How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Abdullah Yousaf


This passage is written by ‘ Matt Imnan. ” The passage name is getting lost. In this passage the writer is telling she is travelling in a bus. The tone of the passage was getting lost in a big city.

Writer has used big paragraphs to describe her getting lost in a big city e.g  “What I did not mention was that on the way to fields I got utterly lost.” This shows the writer is describing her experience and what she felt like getting lost. 

 Second most important technique writer used in the passage is Jargon e.g “Korea”s Boseong Green Tea Fields, Google map and Daejeon. This technique is used for giving references to certain places or topics

Third technique used in the passage is repetition which is repetition of sentence or word e.g “his seeming kindness, he was of no help for me”. This has 2 effects on the passage showing emphasis on the topic or writer or author has a lack of ideas.

The writer has used simple vocabulary by using the words like, mention,terminal,relax,hopped and pouring. This shows the writer has not put irrelevant information or ideas.

Finally, the writer has used a lot of alliteration, e.g “thank the,have had, tried to, to the and after. The writer used this technique to show extra impact on the passage.

From this we have learnt that whenever we’re going to some place we should have our necessary things with us and have an idea where to go and what to do.


Q) Describe an antique store. By Ayesha Amirzeb Sheikh


I entered the store. The bell on the top of the door jingles informing the owner that another customer has entered the shops. As I enter and take my first few steps my nostrils and mouth are filled with the smell of dust. I can feel the dust particles go down my throat as I try to swallow the foul taste. There are shelves and shelves filled with unusual objects. The whole store seems to be covered with dust. This store has so much dust that you can actually see the dust in the air and will also notice the difference in color of the air. Outside the store the air is clean and fresh here the air is stale. The store is rather sad as there’s nothing which isn’t covered in dust. 

I move my index finger along the dust-colored walls to find it instantly turn black due to the amount of dust. Though everything here is covered in dust yet there seems to be some kind of magic in the air. 

The store is filled with amazing magical items. It almost seems like I’m Alice, and now I’ve entered Wonderland except this time through a door not a rabbit hole. Shelves filled with old treasured books, strange looking silverware, unusually looking clocks, some which are moving at two times the actual speed and even statues of strange people. There were statues of Greek Gods as well. A two faced statue, one face was smiling and the other crying. The marble was smooth under my fingers and I touched the statue. Beautiful paintings of different Lords of ancient time. Ancient radios, cycles, chairs, books and furniture. 

There were some… interesting things as well like pebbles, worn out summer gloves claiming to be powerful, hats claiming to make the wearer invisible, a broken umbrella which declared to protect the holder from bats. Clocks with five hands instead of two, one of which was moving at such a great speed you could barely see it.

There was a whole shelf for old books. Some books are declared to be read by famous Kings and Queens of the past. Books which were shelf-worn, having bumped corners covered in dust, the spine falling apart indicating how many times it had been read before. Some books I could recognize like Wuthering Heights and Pride and Prejudice while others are foreign. 

One section was filled with instruments. Olden instruments were placed in that corner. Trumpets, drums, harmoniums, mouth organs, flutes and many more. Some are so tempting that I risk moving a finger against the strings of an old guitar. I can feel the deep vibrations as a beautiful sound is emitted. 

Some things actually catch my eye like silverware, suited for a Queen. In one corner there are jewellery said to be found from treasure chests of Queens. The jewelry was very catchy. Gold rings and necklaces, silver earrings and many more. There were rusted coins and stamps, sundials,water clocks and even some religious books.

There’s peace and quiet in the store. I can even hear the creak of wood under my feet as I move forward to explore. I can even hear the creaking of the not-properly oiled fan moving at such a slow pace yet still the store is rather cool.

This antique store is magical. You can feel the souls and spirits of the previous Lords, Ladies, Kings and Queens coming and going. The store might be empty yet it’s actually alive.

Paragraph Writing by Javeria Asif


Ding Dong. The bell rang, it’s high pitched tones forcing their way into my eardrums, making themselves heard. Hastily, I dragged myself out of bed and padded towards the doorstep, my cat, Minnie trailing closely behind. Who could be at my house this early? I rarely had visitors and when I did, none of them had the audacity of showing up before the crack of dawn. Minnie, interrupting my curiosity, whined at my feet, demanding breakfast. Sighing, I took a quick detour to the kitchen and slapped some fresh fish into her bowl, which she seemed quite pleased with judging by the approving look she gave me – that cat! Finally reaching my door, I rubbed the sleep out of my eyes to see a great big brown box. I tried lifting it up, to no avail, so eventually I just dragged it inside. It was sealed as tightly as a caterpillar enclosed in its cocoon before metamorphosis into a butterfly. Once I managed to open it up, I was graced with a peculiar sight: the box was full to the brim with seashells and earrings;  an odd combination. 

Paragraph Writing By Marium Faisal


I once went on a trip with my friends to the Southside Beach. We made a plan and settled for 17th October. We were excited to check the beach in winters. Sooner afterwards, James rang the bell in my house as I was the one who had to take all my friends to the beach. I took James and picked Sara as well as Arthur. It took us half an hour to reach there. We quickly ran to the beach in excitement and found a couple of sea shells. Sara collected the ones she really liked. We also discovered a dead fish in plan sight, it looked unsightly. However, even after that, we went to get some food as we were famished and then we headed back home. Later onwards, I realised I had lost one of my earrings back at the beach. I was upset but I refused to drive for half an hour again. 

‘Last night I dreamt…’ By Raasia Khan


Last night I dreamt, well – a confusing nightmare, and less a dream. A simple, plain, empty pathway; a road, with the snow melting, and weeping willow trees slowly returning from a sublime white to a lush green. Not much happening that I could see, almost silent with small scuffles here and there; seemed like this would be one peaceful dream. But obviously, that had to change, Raasia can’t ever have even one good dream; I should’ve known.

 Unexpectedly – and annoyingly – I was jerked into another dimension, and so quickly that I almost fell back due to the inertia. Televisions, all around, news reporters, different languages and dialects, and the TV’s in all sizes and graphics, but all of them seemingly discussing the same thing. Flu? Well, flu wasn’t much of a serious issue anymore, so why were they still broadcasting clips of people hospitalised and on oxygen? Maybe I was seeing the past. But wait – pandemic, and I heard 2021? Influenza was a major issue back in the 1900s, so this couldn’t possibly be that. I turned my head toward a TV displaying what looked like a virus; the reporter called it the novel coronavirus? Looking around toward other screens; maybe some were broadcasting something I actually understood. But just as my eyes landed on a TV screen where the news reporter was shouting something in Urdu, there was another jerk, and instead of TV’s, there were fires. 

Deers running around, kangaroos – Australia? Why was it burning? I could see trees collapsing, sounds of animals in agony. I was so intrigued by the flaming red, and grasped by the scene around me, I forgot to watch out for myself and before I knew it, a huge bark, with its coarse wood on fire, was about to crash onto me. I froze in shock, my nerves not being able to react, but it somehow fell right through me. I was in this false reality but I was simply (and thankfully) in something of a viewing mode. Smoke going up, bushes ablaze, broken legs of limping marsupials and all I could do was watch. The grass beneath me lit up and burnt as I fell through into another scene.

Ah, people. People, but not society as I knew it.

 A lockdown. Shutters and blinds being shut, everyone with a mask on and those who weren’t, being fined by those who were. Everyone afraid of even a mere cough. As I walked along the pathway, I saw people hiding in rooms, isolating themselves. And as I was about to approach one of the open windows to discern what the situation was, I heard the blinds shut and suddenly, a new place. Again. 

Few people outside, no longer wearing masks, but still being tortured. Guns being fired, stones being thrown, even at women and children. People ordering others to get in their house right away, others begging. This was hard to see. 

I walked along, still seeing women being tortured, children reaching out for their mothers, and I flinched as they continued being hurt without mercy. 

All of a sudden, I’m in a room, a high ceiling, a desk, with the Afghan flag and some documents. A man, in a coat, at the desk, his eyebrows furrowed. Another man at the front of the desk. The man in the coat began speaking, 

‘I’m leaving. I have to resign. I’m done.’ He was making short anxious statements. ‘Taliban. They’re going to hurt us. Don’t believe a thing they say. I am leaving.’ 

Before I could hear what the other man had to say, I was in another place, and there’s now a car, with a person of colour being beaten by a white policeman. He was asking for mercy but received none. Racism. At least I knew what this was. 

It was like my head didn’t want to see what this was for longer. So, here we were, a different surrounding. Signs held up, people protesting, boards with a common hashtag #BlackLivesMatter. Many different diversities, ethnicities, accents, but all with the same goal, which as far as I could see, was getting justice for Floyd. As I shuffled along by the protest, the signs changed into ‘Freedom for Palestine’ or ‘Hands off Jerusalem.’ 

In the blink of an eye, silence. 

It was dark now, just an empty void. A few seconds of this and I began hearing some noises, my sisters singing, and my mom, my name. My eyes flicked open and as the wheels in my head started turning, I realised what I thought was simply a nightmare is actually reality. The world is in a bad place. 

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Ramiz Hasham


The passage given has been entitled as ‘getting lost’. The structure of this passage is in the form of a narrative, where the writer is recalling events they have experienced. We may also conclude that this extract has been taken from a journal or a weekly blog, where the writer writes about events that have transpired within their life. The purpose of this passage is to share an experience or moment in the writer’s life so as to amuse or enlighten others. The language used by the author in this text is highly descriptive and illustrative, where the writer describes his experience by painting a vivid picture. This text is directed more so towards travelers who may relate to such an experience, but it is important to know that the text may be interpreted and enjoyed by a wide variety of audiences as the writer’s language make it easily accessible. The writer has used a varying tone throughout, wherein the beginning of the tone is quite straightforward and informative. But as the text progresses the writer adds a subtle sub tone of humor. The writer has used a plethora of varying linguistic techniques in order to appeal this passage more towards travelers so that they can relate to such an experience but has also not used complex terminology that only travelers would understand, this allows even more people to be amused and informed by reading this text. 

Onto the main body of the passage, we can see that this text possesses various stylistic techniques in order to attract any reader towards the text and to keep their interest as they read it. One major stylistic effect the writer has used is the use of imagery in order to create vivid descriptions for the reader. “At this point in the story should mention that it was raining and that I also had an injured foot. You can now picture me limping around a completely foreign city in the pouring rain.” The quotation above proves the point about the writers use of imagery, as in this specific example we can see how the writer creates a lucid image of the situation he was in. This allows the reader to better relate to such an event and therefore prolongs the reader’s interest in the piece of writing. 

Proceeding with other examples of the writers use of stylistic devices, we can see that the writer has also used a small but feasible amount of personification in the text. Point in case, “I quickly (my battery was close to dying) downloaded the subway app for Daejeon and found the stop closest to the bus terminal.” The use of personification allows the reader to connect with that specific experience of the author. In this case, by calling his phone dead he explains the extent of the crisis he was in. It allows the reader to better understand the text. 

The writer has also used a mix of linguistic devices and effects. A major effect is the use of colloquial language. This is evident in the following quotation, “When you allow yourself to ‘go with the flow’ as some people say,” The use of colloquial language allows the writer to stay true to his tone as he now enforces a more relaxed version of his events, this allows the reader to read the passage without feeling the need to focus on each and every work and analyzing it as some would do in a formal passage. 

All in all, the writer has used a varying degree of linguistic and stylistic devices in order to achieve his main goal of trying to relate his experience towards other travelers that can relate to his experience . The write has used a varying tone which has created many different effects on the readers themselves.

Q) Explain how Karin Swanson presents her ideas and opinions about being a sports fan. By Syed Ali Hasan Rizvi


This passage ‘I am a Sports Fan’ is adapted from an article by Karin Swanson. The theme of the passage is ‘sports’. The purpose of the passage is to inform the reader about the connection of the writer with sports or if looked from another perspective, to inform to reader that females can also enjoy sports or invest their time in it.The language used in this passage is colloquial, engaging, casual, inclusive, and simple with the use of compound words. The tone of the passage is opinionated. The audience consists of young adults, adults, sports enthusiasts/people who read sports articles in their free time.

The passage is written in a first-person perspective which immediately puts the reader inside the narrator’s head, which allows for an intimate portrayal of thoughts and emotions. The extent of casual/informal language used can be highlighted as the writer has used colloquial language in the passage such as ‘hang out with the guys’ and ‘underdogs’. This creates a conversational tone between the reader and the writer hence, giving a relaxing effect. Rich vocabulary such as ‘perpetuate’, ‘stereotypes’, and ‘intensely scrutinizes’ is also used, through this the writer is able to express herself with even bigger depths.

Then, in ending of the introduction the use of parenthesis can also be seen; ‘(least of all college basketball)’, providing the reader with supplementary information. The utilization of Em dashes/long dashes in the second paragraph: ‘In my experience it’s a fine line – guys typically find it attractive that a girl likes sport,…’ and ‘But, there are many different sorts of fans – some people just care about a particular team…’ adds emphasis and the writer’s experience is shared easily and manifestly with the reader.

Furthermore, Karin Swanson has also given references side by side, such as ‘the football World Cup’, ‘Olympics’, ‘East Coast of America’, and ‘UCLA basketball game.’ This persuades the reader and makes the writer’s ideas and opinions more clear.

The writer has used multiple figures of speech in the passage to heighten effect and to convey her ideas and opinions. Starting off with Metaphor. To wit, ‘putting blind faith in a group of people you will probably never meet’, ‘team hit the court’, ‘solid five years’, and ‘stampeded’. Through this the writer basically adds spice and a layer of richness to her writing, and conveys vivid imagery to the reader in order to transcend literal meanings.

Secondly, the writer has used Alliteration, shown by, ‘sacrificed sleep’ and ‘through thick and thin’. This adds emphasis and reinforces meaning.

The writer has used exaggeration in her passage. Point the case, ‘sacrificed sleep’ and ‘stuck with them through thick and thin’. This makes it easier for the reader to understand what the writer is trying to share or persuade by dramatically reinforcing the point.

Next, the writer has given statistics in the second last paragraph (line number 40) which is ‘Peruvians at 12,000 feet along the Inca trail’. Through the evidence provided by Karin Swanson, her statement is supported and the reader is positioned and persuaded easily. 

Finally, the writer has used repetition in the conclusion of the passage; ‘regardless of gender or class or ideology or age.’ The repetition of ‘or’ creates rhythm and the reader finds it more interesting. Through the use of repetition in the ending of the passage, emphasis and prominence is given to the conclusion of the passage.

Winding up, the writer has used a variety of techniques such as humour, exaggeration, anecdote, phrasal verbs, idiomatic phrases, along with inclusive and colloquial language. The ‘cherry on top’ being the linguistic elements, simple vocabulary, and figures of speech such as Metaphor and Alliteration. It would be correct to say that the writer, Karin Swanson was successful to engage the reader and also perpetuate the audience’s interest.