Daily Archives: September 11, 2021

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meanings. By Ahmad Raja


The title of this passage is, ‘some birds are so stressed by noise pollution it looks like they have PTSD’. This passage is taken out from the Washington post. This passage is having a mixture of short to medium sized paragraphs with short simple sentences to long compound-complex sentences. The tone is interactive and semi-formal. The main purpose of the passage is to explain and inform the readers about the severe problem of noise-pollution and its consequences.

Firstly, the writer has put a beautiful picture of a western bluebird in the start, right under the title of the passage. This picture helps the writer to grab the reader’s mind and the reader gets a complete idea on what we will be talking about in the passage and he does not get bored.

Secondly. The writer has used dialogues at many places such as, ‘-“You can imagine being in a state of constant arousal and hypervigilance,”-’, ‘-“The body is just starting to break down.”-’

This helps the writer to get the reader’s attention and dialouges make it easy for the reader to comprehend as he/she feels like someone is directly talking to them. A sense of tru talk is given by dialogues.

Thirdly, the writer has used a lot of expert advice such as, ‘-Rob Guralnick, associate

curator of biodiversity informatics at the Florida Museum of Natural History.-’

Expert advice has a strong grasp on the reader’s mind as they feel like they are being well informed by well educated and knowledgeable people.

Fourthly, the writer has used facts and actual stories like, ‘The bluebird didn’t realize what she was getting herself into when she chose her new home,about 75 yards from a natural gas compressor’. These stories make an image in the reader’s mind and they imagine everything happening to the poor creature.

Fifthly, the writer has used questions in the passage such as, ‘Why is hearing so important to health?’ This is a way to answer the readers questions and they feel like they’re being given importance and keep on reading the passage.

Sixthly, the writer has used second person words like, ‘you know’ , ‘You can.’ This gives importance to the reader as they feel they are being talked and catered to directly and hence feel special and go on reading the passage.

In conclusion, the writer is successful in conveying whatever he wanted to convey to the reader and has made an impact with his words.

*This is an example of what you should avoid doing while writing an analysis or AO2.*


Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meanings. By Syed Subhan


The title of this text is “Some birds are so stressed by noise pollution it looks like they have PTSD” which is taken from a magazine called “The Washington Post”.The writer uses different styles of techniques and language to convey his meaning.The purpose for writing this text would be to inform people about birds and their struggles.The passage talk about birds PTSD and gives helpful information in a good formal way intended for an audience of young adults and adults.The passage is written in an expository style as the writer talks about a specific subject which is birds.

The writer uses dialogues to give  a clear explanation for what hes talking about for example ““You can imagine being in a state of constant arousal and hypervigilance,”.The use of dialogues shows the emotions of a situation or a character and also builds suspense.

The author also uses figures of speech such as alliterations for example “clear cutting”, “conservation concern”.The use of alliterations helps the reader to focus more on the subject and helps create rhythm and mood.

Use of statistics can also be seen in the passage for example “75 yards” and “240 nesting sites”.The writer uses these as a tool to convince the reader and to add factual weight to an argument.

The writer uses descriptive language and words and uses different type of sentences to  help the reader feel almost as if they are a part of the scene or event being described.

In conclusion the writer has conveyed his feeling and emotions through different techniques, figures of speech and language.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meanings. By Fasih-ul-Hassan Taqvih


This extract is titled “lost in the wilderness- these tips can save your life” by Mark Jenkins. This is likely to be non-fictional, considering the fact that its structure resembles that of a blog or article. Purpose wise the author aims to inform the reader about how to combat wilderness in extreme circumstances.The language is mostly semi-formal and factual as well as it advises the reader constantly. The audience are amongst those young adults or teenagers who are interested in exploring the wilderness and how to survive in it. The tone is warm and inviting but also apprehensive and cautious. It is a mostly second-person perspective.

The most commonly utilized rhetorical device throughout the excerpt is inclusive language. Instances such as “ask yourself basic questions”, “unless you get lost”. Inclusive language has been developed so that a bond can be built between viewer and author. Otherwise, inclusive language makes the reader feel more involved which enables the author to maintain the focus of their respected audience. He can fulfill his purpose of informing them with survival tips successfully.

Otherwise, the excerpt corporates literary devices like triples. Triples welcome them self in instances like ,“food, water, pocket-knife” and “raincoat, extra clothes, matches and lighter”. Triples provide the extract with a sense of authenticity and sway the reader to agree with the author’s perspective. Triples also make the article seem authoritative, as the writer appears to be quite knowledgeable and have a great understanding of wilderness. Triples hook the reader as well, for the tips rouse their curiosity and persuade them to read more. 

Moving forward, the extract installs statistics in the immediate paragraphs when it states, “in the mountains not 30 miles from my home”. This allows the audience to envision and visualize the writer’s previous travel experiences. Other instances of statistics such as, “thousands of hikers get lost every year”. This induces a profound effect from the viewers, evoking their pathos and ethos, as they feel sympathetic for the lost wayfarers. 

On the other hand, the extract incorporates sub-texts and headings. For example, “T stands for think”, “S is to simply stop”. This makes it easier for the writer to fulfill his purpose of equipping the audience through life-saving tips, by informing them. Sub-texts make it easier for the viewers to scan through the information presented before them, maintaining their interest as they are influenced to read more. Sub-texts coerce the reader into using their logos, as they try to visualize how they will employ these tactics in real life. Particularly in the wild.

Moving forward, the extract employs punctuation for effect, like parenthesis on various occasions. This is true through instances like, “anxiety- symptoms of lightheadedness”, “panicky- the average lost person”. This creates a sense of drama and heightens the suspense and tension in the extract. The writer is able to keep his readers interested and conveniently fulfill his intended purpose, by providing them with survival tips. The last entry of parentheses, “- you die from bad decisions”, increases the already existing sense of suspense, maintaining the reader’s 

On the contrary, the extract welcomes literary devices like alliteration. Alliteration appears at instances like, “frantically moving faster”. Alliteration creates a sense of rhythm and rhyme, which makes it easier for the audience to grasp the knowledge presented before them. Once again, the viewers are hooked and want to read more. 

Otherwise, the excerpt utilizes Anaphora. “What is the weather doing? What is the weather forecast?”. Anaphora makes the extract more interesting and enjoyable to view for the reader. It evokes the reader’s logos as they are presented with a question and are forced to answer it. It draws in the reader’s participation and they try to anticipate what’s coming next. By keeping the reader anticipated, the writer is able to fulfill his intended purpose of writing. 

Hence through utilizing rhetorical and literary devices, the writer has a deep effect on the audience, maintains their interest and fulfills their purpose of writing.

Q. How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meanings? By Javeria Husain


This passage, titled “So you’re lost in the wilderness- these tips could save your life”, is written by the author Mark Jenkins. The purpose of this text was to inform the readers about some life saving tips whilst hiking. The audience can be assumed to be hikers, or any interest group related to survival and hiking would have been attracted to this passage. The theme of this passage can be survival, and hiking as the passage mainly focuses about how the readers can improve their hiking to a safer level. 

Firstly, the author uses a well descriptive approach to its readers while trying to reach his point across, words like “wilderness, trembling” are used by the author while describing. This can be helpful for the reader as they would be more aided to how to perceive and fully understand the author’s message so that they could practically carry it out the right way as well if they would ever choose to. The author’s vocabulary and descriptive techniques guide the reader with a perspective of the author itself, which helps develop a mutual understanding between the reader and the writer. Adding onto that, the author’s vocabulary is also shown to be descriptive as well. Words like “anxiety,craggy, retrace” help the reader visualize with the writer. This helps the reader to have a clear illustration in their mind and fulfills the point of the writer as he tries to convey his message to his audience. 

Secondly, the use of rhetorical questions are present, direct questions addressing the reader like “ What should you do? Can you call? Can you text?” are used by the writer. The author constantly involves the reader after each statement he passes to individually grasp the reader’s direct and full attention.The use of this technique helps engage with the readers directly, which further helps develop a bond of understanding and helps engage the reader when the author addresses them. This helps the reader to keep up with the author’s thought process. Adding onto that, the author has tactfully structured his paragraphing style to short and direct, brief sentences, following with a rhetorical question at the end of each one, which also further helps the reader and the writer to constantly be engaging with each other and keeping up side to side. The impact of the short sentence structure helps keep the reader alert and engaged as much as possible, as it stands out more boldly to the reader and fully grasps their attention and focus on the writer’s point. “…It depends”. “If you do all these things the chances are you’ll be found”, the way these sentences are structured also use the effective use of acronyms, for the word “ STOP”.  This helps the writer also assure the reader and helps develop a mutual bond of understanding and trust in between the two. Along with keeping the reader engaged, short sentences also help the reader to keep thinking as well. This also adds onto a hint of mystery and helps the reader to emphasize more on the writer’s point to understand it better.  This engagement with the reader is very tactful as the reader feels acknowledged and a bond is developed with a reliable level of understanding in between the reader and the writer upon the focusing point.

Thirdly, there is a use of strong punctuation by the author. The author punctuates his sentences with the use of full stops, question marks, semi colons, colons and brackets and hyphens. The use of these helps the author punctuate his sentences while meaningfully holding the intended effect upon the reader. Adding onto that, the author has also used effective vocabulary in conveying his message. There is a repetitive use of alliteration present in the author’s style of writing. “Simply stop, panic pass, commonly called”. This helps create a rhythm and mood in the writer’s message while having similar connotations. This helps the reader also be entertained whilst retaining the information that is coming in from the writer.

In conclusion of this literary analysis, the author has used tactful literary techniques as discussed in the paragraphs above.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Areesha Fatima


This article which is taken from ‘The Washington Post’ is titled, ‘Some birds are so stressed by noise pollution that it looks like they have PTSD’ has an unnamed author. Informative is the main purpose along with the writer’s cheerful tone even though the bluebird’s struggle is being discussed. A profound dialect with a scientific touch can be seen throughout the text. The audience seems to be mainly people interested in animals and their science(zoology) however anyone could give this a read. The theme of this text is noise pollution affecting some birds.

Firstly, right in the second paragraph, the writer has added humour. For example, “Scientists couldn’t ask the bluebird what she was feeling.” This technique basically provokes slight laughter and also tends to engage the reader as a negative, distressing thing which are the bluebird’s feelings have been turned into something positive.

Moreover, opinion can also be seen in the text. For example, “…said Rob Guralnick, associate curator of biodiversity informatics at the Florida Museum of Natural History” “But in a paper published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.” This gives the text more weightage and the sharing of opinions gives a broader view of thinking as one thing can be seen from different perspectives. It gives the text a more reliable look.

Furthermore, facts. Facts always grab the reader’s attention e.g. “about 75 yards from a natural gas compressor.” “as part of a study of 240 nesting sites surrounding natural gas treatment facilities in northern New Mexico.” This connotes that the reader is well-informed and it gives authority to the passage as a reader will agree or disagree with the points being made with a wider aspect.

Additionally, alliteration has also been written by the author. For example, “small and scantily” “conservation concern”  These engage the reader and add emphasis to the words and/or phrases as the repetition of the first alphabet does so.

Fifthly, the author has used rhetorical questions and further gained the reader’s attention which can be seen by, “Why is hearing so important to health?” This one question encourages the reader to think, think a lot so that the question asked by the author remains in the reader’s mind. This technique automatically creates a connection between the reader and the writer as the reader feels as if the author is directly asking him/her the question. 

Also, the cheerful tone of the author can not go unnoticed. Where he/she talks about the effects of noise pollution on bluebirds and disorders that may arise in animals, he/she also brings a positive point of view into the text. For example, ‘“It gets really tricky,” Francis said. “We’re going to need to come up with with some really creative experiments to sort this out.”’ So this way of uplifting the positivity in an issue, clearly depicts the author’s tone and mood while writing the text. This also engages the reader and grabs the reader’s attention.

In conclusion, these stylistic devices and rhetorical techniques used by the author have successfully achieved the writer’s purpose of writing.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Amal Adil


The passage “Some birds are so stressed by noise pollution it looks like they have PTSD” has been taken from a newspaper article called “The Washington Post”. The purpose of the passage is to inform the reader. A professional style of language is used and a mixture of simple, compound and complex sentences have been used. The passage is mainly intended for adults or young adults who are interested in these types of topics and want to learn more about them. It could also be intended for people who are currently studying about science or biology. The tone of the passage is quite formal as the passage is intended to inform, not to entertain the reader. 

The author has used quotations in the passage for example, ‘“Noise is causing birds to be in a situation where they are chronically stressed”’, ‘“We think it is a real conversation concern”’, ‘“It gets really tricky”’. By adding quotations in the passage, the author has added more evidence, therefore making the passage more believable. The reader believes the author’s words and as the passage is to inform the reader, the reader finds it easier to believe that the information given by the reader is not fake. 

The author has also given a lot of facts in the passage like “that would result in a state of chronic fatigue”, “But this is an acoustic degradation of the environment”. By using facts the author has added more weight and evidence to the passage. This shows how important it is to add evidence and proof to the topic in an informative passage as the writer has to make the reader believe the facts and information presented. Facts add more information to the passage and the readers would want to read more as they would want to learn more about the effect of noise pollution on birds. 

The writer has used difficult vocabulary in the passage for example, “chronically”, “hypervigilance”, “psychological”. Difficult or advanced vocabulary makes the passage seem more formal and professional to the reader. It makes them seem as if the writer has knowledge about the topic and this way the reader also learns new words along with the information about the topic stated. 

The author has also used triples in the passage for example, “noise pollution, abnormal levels of stress hormones and lower survival rates”. The uses of triples adds emphasis to the passage and creates a flow of writing. It adds a rhythm and makes the passage more fun and easier for the reader to read. As these triples are also facts, the reader also gets more information along with the flow of writing. 

The author has also used statistics in the passage like, “75 yards”, 240 nesting sites”. The use of numbers in the passage also makes the passage more believable and formal. The reader believes and gets more information by reading the passage and benefits from reading the passage. 

The author has also used a reference in the passage, “there is a Goldilocks distance”. By adding a popular reference, the writer makes the passage more interesting as the reader can relate to something in the passage and sometimes, the use of a reference can make the reader understand something better, especially if it is a piece of information. 

In conclusion, I think that the writer has used many techniques to add weight to the passage, especially to support the piece of information that is being  presented. The writer has mainly used techniques to make the passage more convincing as it is an informative passage. The use of facts, statistics, quotations adds weight to the information and the author has been successful in getting the message and information across to the reader.